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Introduction Of Taurine

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  • Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a sulfur-containing conditionally-essential amino acid which is not utilized in protein synthesis but rather is found free or in simple peptides. Derived from methionine and cysteine metabolism, taurine is known to play an important role in numerous physiological functions.

  • Taurine is the most abundant intracellular amino acid in humans and is found in high concentrations in skeletal muscles, central nervous system as well as in the heart muscles and liver.

  • Racemethionine is a precursor for taurine in the body and the dietary sources include dairy products, meat, poultry, eggs and fish.

TAURINE: ROLE IN CARTILAGE PROTECTION AND JOINT HEALING 

Taurine And Stress Induced Joint Problems:

  • Chronic stress is one of the important causative factors for arthritis. Arthritis itself induces stress and thus continuation of the vicious cycle which further effects the disease progression and quality of life. Therefore reducing stress is of prime importance to curb the symptoms of arthritis in patients. Chronic stress leads to hormonal imbalances. The hormone cortisol increases resulting in decrease of tissue insulin sensitivity – a phenomenon termed as “insulin resistance.” It is very important because it leads to the decreased absorption of glucose into the body's cells including cartilage. When glucose doesn't enter the cells, not only is the energy production impaired but joints ultimately cannot be repaired due to the inability to make GAGs. In such conditions taurine is found to play a vital role.

  • Taurine is abundantly concentrated in brain and known to relieve stress. By controlling the mobilization of calcium ions during depolarization, taurine stabilizes membranes and influences glutamate generation an important neurotransmitter. Recent research suggests that taurine depletion may be associated with epileptic seizures & supplementation has been reported as beneficial 26.

  • Taurine also has beneficial effects in controlling blood sugar levels and improving insulin sensitivity. Taurine may be important in the maintenance of euglycemia by enhancing insulin activity via stimulation of insulin receptors. Low plasma and platelet taurine have been reported in diabetes mellitus, supplementation restores plasma concentrations and corrects blood platelet dysfunction. In a diabetic rat model, taurine improved glucose and fat metabolism along with reduced insulin resistance 26.

  • Thus taurine along with glucosamine may be beneficial in patients with stress to form GAGs and prevent or reduce joint disorders.